Da die momentanen Entwicklungen, besonders die sinkende Verfügbarkeit von Fossilen Energiequellen, unserer Gesellschaft massiv schaden, ist es notwendig, auf andere Technologien auszuweichen.

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Comparison of three different motor types


   vs.      vs.  

This paper was analysed in 2009 during a phase of motor testing and the analysis and search for information concerning propulsion machines by Roland Romano. Most data is collected (sources[i]); this paper bases on diagrams and information published by the producer(s) of the motor(s).


The aim of this work was to show the differences, withdrawals and benefits of the three main propulsion/traction engines and motors: Gasoline engines (ICE), Diesel engines (ICE) and Electric motors (EM).


Three different Motors were observed and analysed:

1) A 1,6 L Gasoline Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) (further called 1,6L Gas. Engine); installed in Opel Vectra

2) A turbocharged 1,9 L Commonrail Diesel Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) (further called 1,9L Diesel Engine); installed in Opel Vectra

http://www.opel.at/contents/2005070717113166IM7.pdf (Pages 17 and 18)

3) A PWM & phase-advanced 3-Phase Brushless PermanentMagnet  Motor (further called Electric Motor); Type = Powerphase125®



For easy use of Data, Torque/Speed Graphs and Diagrams were chosen as well as differentiated between Torque/Speed and Power/Speed Charts.



 Torque max. :

There is a big difference between the levels of max. torque. The 1,6L Gas. Engine has a max. torque of 150 Nm at 4000 rpm. The 1,9L Diesel Engine's max. torque is about  260 Nm at 2000-2500 rpm; that's almost 173% the torque of the 1,6L Gas. Engine. The Electric Motor has its highest torque of 300 Nm from 0 - 2500 rpm.

Torque bandwidth:

A characteristic of Gasoline ICEs is the very wide range of rotation speed (rpm) without any sharp peaks. Motor engineers try not to push max. torque upwards but want to lift the whole band of torque upwards to gain elasticity (= gain torque over wide ranges of rpm); here: 3000 - 5000 rpm

The development in diesel engineering searches for high pressures which leads to higher torque at one maximum. This is a very sharp peak, usually at medium rpm (20-30% of max. rpm),  a Gasoline Engine: max.torque: 2000 -2500 rpm ( at 80% of max. rpm).



The basic idea was to compare three different motors that have the same Peak-Power (. There are big differences, when (in relation to speed) this power is attained. The 1,9L Diesel Engine as well as the Electric Motor have their maximum at 3500 rpm. The 1,6L Gasoline Engine, due to its weak torque reaches it's maximum power at 6000 rpm; almost the double of the previous.

RPM - Range


The 1,9L Diesel Engine has the biggest shortcoming of speed variability. It only spins from 900 to 5000 rpm while the 1,6L Gas. Engine ranges from 900 to 6500 rpm; about 36% more than the 1,9L Diesel Engine. The electric Motor is able to spin from 0 to 11 000 rpm; it can spin almost the double of an average Internal Combustion Engine.

The rpm are strictly defined by the kind of operation in the motor. While ICE and the combustion of fuel in them cannot be accelerated to any level, today's fastest electric motor works at incredibly 1 000 000 revolutions per minute.




Both Ices have zero torque at 0 rpm, even at rpm lower than 1000 their weak torque is only a fraction of the Electric Motor's torque. Diesel Engines are eager to attain high torques due to their high compression.

In general, electric motors can apply their full torque at zero rpm. Therefore, high power and high torque applications should use this potential.      



Comparing the Power/Speed curves, Gasoline Engines reach their max. Power relatively late whereas Diesel Engines and Electric Motors develop high power at low rpm.



With fixed gears in every application, ICEs have to use a coupler to overdrive when idling is reached (low rpm) whereas Electric Motors can turn as slow as demanded and still apply full torque. So the "way" from zero to a constant speed is much faster (torque) and more powerful (more kW at low rpm) to attain with Electric Motors.

Economy & Fuel-Efficiency


Electric Motors base on electrodynamics' principles and can develop over 90% efficiency in generating as well as propelling appliances. Diesel Engines as well as Gasoline Engines rely on the Carnot-Cycle and therefore lower efficiencies. Due to higher temperatures going along with efficiency gain, the Engine's Material limit efficiency. In alternating power demand about 20-30% of the energy contained in the fuel are transformed in mechanical energy.



On the one hand, Internal Combustion Engines burn fuel and so, gaseous emissions, the due of servicing as well as acoustic emissions happen, on the other hand they deliver good power at little weight ( high power-to-weight ratio). To deliver fuel to these engines is rather simple: a pipe for stationary or a tank for mobile applications. Another issue are the vibrations in piston engines where as rotary engines vibrate very little but consume more oil, fuel and faster wear out materials.

Electric Motors do deliver a even higher power-to-weight ratio in stationary application but need a portable source of electricity in mobile applications. Their long servicing intervals break down costs and make them very reliable. As the rotor (main part of moving mass) of an Electric Motor rotates around his own axis and hardly vibrates at all, vibrations are limited to tolerances in the bearings.


According to the previous rankings, the average assessment of every technology observed can be considered.



Keywords: Electric Motor, Internal Combustion Engine, ICE, Brushless Motor, Torque, Power, Speed, vs., comparison


[i] 1,6L Gasoline as well as 1,9L CTDI were Motors from Opel; Model = Opel Vectra; Graphs from Opel Folder

                    image020.gif                    image022.gif







The PWM & phase-advanced 3-Phase Brushless PermanentMagnet  Motor (further called Electric Motor); Type = Powerphase125® 's data were taken from the producer's data sheet.


                                                              Roland M. Romano 2010

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